Vitamins are essential organic molecules in very small amounts for normal metabolism of the organism. There are many vitamins and they are different in chemical nature and physiological effects.

Kind of Vitamins:

  • Vitamins A, B1, B2, B3 (PP), B5, B6, B7, B12, C, D, E, K, …
  • Vitamins A, D, E, K are soluble in fat.
  • Vitamins B and C are soluble in water.

VITAMIN A

Vitamin A is found in liver, animal kidneys, dairy products, eggs and fish liver oil. Carotenoids (pre-vitamin A) are abundant in carrots, yellow fruits, dark green vegetables. Vitamin A is essential for vision, for the growth, development and maintenance of epithelium. The body with vitamin A deficiency causes skin hyperkeratosis, dry eyes, and night blindness.

VITAMIN B1

Vitamin B1 works to reduce neuritis, relieve pain and stimulate liver to excrete toxins to reduce inflammation of the skin. Therefore, B1 is used mainly in the process of treatment and support the condition of eczema, shingles, herpers, psoriasis and other dermatitis symptoms.

VITAMIN B2

Available in corn, eggs, milk, liver, cup language. A deficiency of B2 will cause an eye-to-mouth-genital syndrome with the most obvious manifestation of the swelling in the mouth of the mouth, redness, flaking and spread to the nasal tip of the mouth – symptoms like seborrheic dermatitis Genital organs also suffer from red inflammation, severe flaking skin.

VITAMIN B3

Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is an important nutrient. In fact, every part of your body needs it to function properly.

As a supplement, niacin may help lower cholesterol, ease arthritis and boost brain function, among other benefits.

There are two main chemical forms and each has different effects on your body. Both forms are found in foods as well as supplements.

  • Nicotinic acid: As a supplement, nicotinic acid is a form of niacin used to reduce cholesterol levels and lower your risk of heart disease.
  • Niacinamide or nicotinamide: Unlike nicotinic acid, niacinamide doesn’t lower cholesterol. However, it may help treat psoriasis and reduce your risk of non-melanoma skin cancer.

Niacin is water-soluble, so your body doesn’t store it. This also means that your body can excrete excess amounts of the vitamin if it’s not needed.

Your body gets niacin through food but also makes small amounts from the amino acid tryptophan.

 Vitamin B3

VITAMIN B5

Vitamin B5 is often found in meat, milk, eggs, wheat and yeast. The manifestation of Vitamin B5 deficiency is as obvious as hair loss, skin with eczema, rhinitis, stomatitis.

VITAMIN B6

This type of Vitamin B6 appears in many potatoes, wheat, beans, corn, animal liver. B6 is tasked as a coenzyme to promote decarbonization process and the aminoization process of some amino acids. Human body lacking Vitamin B6 will lead to dermatitis around the eyes, nose and mouth, causing swelling of the lips and tongue. The main effect of Vitamin B6 is the treatment of oral mucosal disease, seborrheic dermatitis, light dermatitis.

VITAMIN B7

Biotine deficiency can cause exfoliative dermatitis, atrophic fibrosis, hypersensitivity, myalgia, fatigue, mild anemia, and hair loss. It is found in meat, milk, and nuts.

Vitamin B7

VITAMIN B12

Vitamin B12 deficiency causes symmetrical hyperpigmentation in the limbs, face and hands, and there is a burning sensation in the tongue. Supplementing Vitamin B12 will help the body synthesize proteins better and promote amino acids in restoring liver cells and nerve cells, while supporting new hematopoiesis. Vitamin B12 along with Folic Acid are also major factors in DNA synthesis.

VITAMIN C

Vitamin C appears in fruits, vegetables, especially in oranges, lemons, grapefruit … has an important role in the process of creating collagen, increasing the body’s resistance, stimulating adrenal secretion of corticosteroids , increase the maturation of red blood cells. Lack of vitamin C can make the wound slow to heal, its structure is defective, causing capillary rupture, causing bleeding under the skin, bleeding of the roots. The main effect of Vitamin C is to support the treatment of hair follicle keratosis, staining of the skin, oral mucositis, healing skin ulcers.

VITAMIN D

Biologically active vitamin D is accelerating the absorption of minerals from the small intestine diet to increase calcium and phosphorus levels from bone and blood. Vitamin D is found in fish liver, butter, milk, eggs. Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets in children, muscle weakness. The effect of Vitamin D is to support the treatment of psoriasis, scleroderma, erythematosus …

Vitamin D

VITAMIN E

Excessive in vegetable oils, cereal germs, eggs, vitamin E prevents oxidation of essential ingredients in cells, preventing the formation of toxic oxidation products. Vitamin E is indicated for the treatment of cases of erythematosus, scleroderma, dermatitis, anti-aging skin combined with vitamin C, A and selenium.

Minerals

Calcium

Deficiency: Long-term inadequate intake can result in low bone mineral density, rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis.

Toxicity: Will cause nausea, vomiting, constipation, dry mouth, thirst, increased urination, kidney stones and soft tissue calcification.

Sources: Dairy, green leafy vegetables, legumes, tofu, molasses, sardines, okra, perch, trout, Chinese cabbage, rhubarb, sesame seeds

Phosphorus

Deficiency: Very rare. Those at risk include premature infants, those who use antacids, alcoholics, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and refeeding syndrome.

Toxicity: Very rare. May result in soft tissue calcification.

Sources: Legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, eggs, fish, buckwheat, seafood, corn, wild rice

Potassium

Deficiency: Not a result of insufficient dietary intake. Caused by protein wasting conditions. Diuretics can also cause excessive loss of potassium in the urine. Low blood potassium can result in cardiac arrest.

Toxicity: Occurs when the intake of potassium exceeds the kidneys capacity for elimination. Found with kidney failure and potassium sparing diuretics. Oral doses greater than 18 grams can lead to toxicity. Symptoms include tingling of extremities and muscle weakness. High dose potassium supplements may cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

Sources: Sweet potato, tomato, green leafy vegetables, carrots, prunes, beans, molasses, squash, fish, bananas, peaches, apricots, melon, potatoes, dates, raisins, mushrooms

Magnesium

Deficiency: Very rare due to abundance of magnesium in foods. Those with gastrointestinal disorders, kidney disorders, and alcoholism are at risk.

Toxicity: None identified from foods. Excessive consumption of magnesium containing supplements may result in diarrhea (magnesium is a known laxative), impaired kidney function, low blood pressure, muscle weakness, and cardiac arrest.

Sources: Legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, fruits, avocado

Salt (sodium chloride)

Deficiency: Does not result from low dietary intake. Low blood sodium typically results from increased fluid retention. One may notice nausea, vomiting, headache, cramps, fatigue, and disorientation.

Toxicity: Excessive intake can lean to increased fluid volume, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps. High blood sodium usually results from excessive water loss.

Sources: Any processed foods, whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, vegetables

Iron

Consume iron rich foods with vitamin C rich foods to enhance absorption.Iron

Deficiency: Anemia with small and pale red blood cells. In children it is associated with behavioral abnormalities.

Toxicity: Common cause of poisoning in children. May increase the risk of chronic disease. Excessive intake of supplemental iron is an emergency room situation. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases are associated with iron excess.

Sources: Almonds, apricots, baked beans, dates, lima beans, kidney beans, raisins, brown rice, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, pumpkin seeds, tuna, flounder, chicken meat, pork

Zinc

Zinc deficiency results in decreased immunity and increases the susceptibility to infection. Supplementation of zinc has been shown to reduce the incidence of infection as well as cellular damage from increased oxidative stress. Zinc deficiency has also been implicated in diarrheal disease, supplementation might be effective in the prophylaxis and treatment of acute diarrhea.

Deficiency: Symptoms include growth retardation, lowered immune statue, skeletal abnormalities, delay in sexual maturation, poor wound healing, taste changes, night blindness and hair loss. Those at risk for deficiency include the elderly, alcoholics, those with malabsorption, vegans, and those with severe diarrhea.

Toxicity: Symptoms that result are abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Long-term consumption of excessive zinc can result in copper deficiency.

Sources: Mushrooms, spinach, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, green peas, baked beans, cashews, peas, whole grains, flounder, oats, oysters, chicken meat

Copper

Deficiency: Relatively uncommon. Clinical sign is hypochromic anemia unresponsive to iron therapy. Neutropenia and leucopenia may also result. Hypopigmentation of skin and hair is also noticed. Those at risk for deficiency include premature infants, infants fed only cow’s milk formula, those with malabsorption syndromes, excessive zinc consumption and antacid use.

Toxicity: Rare. Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Long-term exposure to lower doses of copper can result in liver damage.

Sources: Mushrooms, green leafy vegetables, barley, soybeans, tempeh, sunflower seeds, navy beans, garbanzo beans, cashews, molasses, liver

Chromium

Deficiency: Symptoms include impaired glucose tolerance and elevated circulating insulin

Toxicity: Generally limited to industrial exposure. Long-term supplement use may increase DNA damage. Rare cases of kidney failure have also been documented.

Sources: Lettuce, onions, tomatoes, whole grains, potatoes, mushrooms, oats, prunes, nuts, brewer’s yeast

Fluoride

Deficiency: Increased risk of dental caries.

Toxicity: Children can develop mottled tooth enamel. Swallowing toothpaste with fluoride is typically the cause of this problem. Symptoms include nausea, abdominal pain, and vomiting.

Sources: Water, tea, fish

Iodine

Deficiency: Impairs growth and neurological development. Deficiency can also result in the decreased production of thyroid hormones and hypertrophy of the thyroid.

Toxicity: Rare and occurs in doses of many grams. Symptoms include burning mouth, throat and stomach. Fever and diarrhea can also result.

Sources: Sea vegetables, iodized salt, eggs, strawberries, asparagus, green leafy vegetables

Selenium

Deficiency: Can cause limited glutathione activity. More severe symptoms are juvenile cardiomyopathy and chondrodystrophy.

Toxicity: Multiple symptoms including dermatologic lesions, hair and nail brittleness, gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rash, fatigue, and nervous system abnormalities.

Sources: Brazil nuts, mushrooms, barley, salmon, whole grains, walnuts, eggs

Manganese

Deficiency: Not typically observed in humans.

Toxicity: Generally from industrial exposure.

Sources: Green leafy vegetables, berries, pineapple, lettuce, tempeh, oats, soybeans, spelt, brown rice, garbanzo beans

Molybdenum

Deficiency: Never been observed in healthy people.

Toxicity: More likely than deficiency. Still very rare.

Sources: Legumes, whole grains